It is imperative that all stakeholders in FSM realm know & manage right technologies, policies, framework for the appropriate & best implementation of FSM services.

But, finding the right tool can be stressful – especially as you juggle reports, paperwork & journals, all while racing to deliver the best.

To make this all more manageable, easy & efficient, try using the
FSM Toolbox
to organize your decisions.

Our Story

Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) as we know is a dirty business! But, this business is now becoming a priority agenda for national and local governments, investors and communities. While investments are flowing for FSM projects, challenges remain for initiating and implementing successfully planned and executed projects. Behind the shortcomings lie bottlenecks like knowledge gaps, procedures, professionals and most essentially, tools for a successful design and implementation. So, rely on our principal A-Z source for planning and execution of FSM-smart projects.


Why FSM Toolbox

Rely on our long-standing effort and make us your “first call” for fecal sludge management, as we’ve worked every bit to employ demand-driven approaches. We have carefully reviewed, analyzed and developed tools for you to plan and execute sustainable and tailor-made FSM practices!

What is in the Toolbox

Imagine being able to access tools for proper interdependent actions for managing faecal sludge management to create healthy environment! Just such tools are what we offer and we developed to accelerate capabilities of FSM practitioners like you to structure FSM projects. Also included are guiding documents and information for your use.

Tools developed by AIT
Tools developed by partner organizations
Documents laid out under specific objectives

How to use the Toolbox

FSM toolbox draws on FSM Program to display the information, tools and documents which are to be used in the development, and processing of FSM. It acts as a road map for all FSM development and implementing actors, which systematically guide them with the stages and activities to be included. But, the tools and resources for key-players vary depending on their focus.

Hence, to save yourself some time and trouble, we have also come up with filterable features to match specific user needs. FSM Toolbox provides tools for each stage by highlighting the users – who could use which tools at what stages. Provided tools are tailor-made to the specific context in each stages, therefore users could easily pick up the tools for the stages which they are looking at.

Also, be sure to utilize our Search feature at the top corner of each page. It hunts through the site with any words or phrases you enter, and helps you find what you’re looking for quickly.

What we offer

Our dynamic work is growing! We are ready to expand and extend our contributions beyond the Toolbox! As our experience and knowledge broaden, along with providing you with a spectrum of tools, we are also developing:

Rapid Deployment Consultancy Team

to actively engage ourselves and our expertise in order to carry out assessments

On-Site Training

to train practitioners on how to effectively use the toolbox while matching with specific contexts

FSM Toolbox Online Course

to create a platform for knowledge assimilation and exchange

How to contribute

Our Toolbox Team has taken comprehensive approaches to provide you with tools and solutions to best of our abilities, but you can help it get better.

Do you think that our mission is yours? Whatever the role, do you intend to help to provide and promote information on missing gaps to help this effort and benefit communities? Think you can contribute in some way or the other?

If you answered ‘yes’ to these questions, we look forward to hearing from you. We’re growing, so we shall incorporate your feedbacks/ comments/ information into bettering the Toolbox project. There’s always room in the box for more tools and solutions!



There’s never been faster and easier method of accessing tools to optimize the performance of your FSM projects! FSM program is a roadmap for all FSM development and implementing actors – from Exploratory Study to Operation and Maintenance, including monitoring, reviewing and programming, we have a systematic guide for all stages and activities!

Click on each numbers to learn about the program stages, or view them as a list for more information.

Exploratory Study

Key player at this stage: City Planners

Our first direction is based on identifying the problems and initiating the FSM program to be explored by a City Planner. This approach prioritizes examination of National/state sanitation policies, strategies, plans, initiatives drawn out of:

  • the City Planner’s own initiative to improve his/her city (top-down approach)
  • through needs and demands of locals and communities (bottom-up approach)


  •  Reviewing policies, strategies, plans and initiatives,
  • Local issues
  • Advocacy strategies

Country Strategy Programming

Key player at this stage: Donors

Donors can take a direction to make the program seamless by taking this step, where they can work with member countries to define a medium-term development strategy and operational program, also known as a Country Partnership Strategy (CPS).

Being aligned with the country’s development plan and poverty reduction goals, we have developed CPS in close consultation with the government and other country stakeholders including civil society, nongovernment organizations, private sector, as well as the country’s other development partners.


  • Reviewing country policies, strategies
  • Donor / funding agency’s country strategies

Define Need & Scope of Strategy

Key player at this stage: City Planners

This stage involves ratcheting up the projects by determining needs of the desired location, identifying and prioritizing appropriate strategies to address specific FSM needs considering local conditions on a holistic level.

We will also identify stakeholders, their engagement so that their needs and inputs are taken into consideration and incorporated into this early stage of the program. Use the “Situational Assessment Tool” to understand and implement this stage!


  • Situational Assessment
  • Preliminary Stakeholder Identification and engagement

Strategy Design Option

Key player at this stage: City Planners & Consultants

For a task so important as designing project plans and strategy options, let’s use the rich expertise from Consultants to carry out Pre-Feasibility, Sustainability and Feasibility Studies for examining the scope of interventions, cross-cutting issues and overarching policies. City Planners and Donors may procure consultants if necessary to further interventions in terms of FSM program, beginning from selection of onsite sanitation, emptying and transportation, treatment to disposal and reuse. In the lead up to this intervention, feasibility checks are necessary for regulatory, institutional and capacity building strategies & overall management needs.

Upon meeting these criteria, proper objectives of the project will be set along with planning of design, project components, implementation schedule and financial proposals.


  • Procurement of consultants
  • Feasibility Study
  • Project Planning
  • Project Implementation Plan

Project Appraisal & Approval

Key player at this stage: Donors & City Planners

Once all the strategy scope of interventions is geared up with the much needed technical and financial feasibility, we will take the Program to the Appraisal and Approval stage. To further this, donors and consultants shall go on a fact-finding mission, in consultation with government and other stakeholders to examine the project’s technical, financial, economic, environmental, marketing and management aspects along with social impacts. The outcomes of this examination will be outlined in the Project Appraisal Document (PAD), which shall follow detailed risk and sensitivity analysis to assess project viability, along with discussions on loan terms, conditions and its effectiveness to improve sector performance and address policy issues.

After the draft project proposal with loan agreement gets submitted to all parties involved (government included), for review, negotiations between government and donors will follow. The loan proposal gets submitted to Donor’s Board for approval, and sent to the respective country’s Government for authorization for signature.


  • Project appraisal based on Donor / funding agency policy and guidelines
  • Donor / funding approval
  • Procurement Plan

Strategy Implementation

Key player at this stage: City Planners, Consultants and Donors

The core of all stages, the implementation stage is filled with project execution details and agreements. Key tasks shall be carried out by relevant consultants to detail engineering design, prepare bidding documents, procure machineries, equipment, civil works and supervision of construction work.

Donors shall review implementation progress and monitor achievement in close coordination with city planners and executing agencies. They will also assess the project by visiting the project location at least twice a year.


  • Procurement of Goods/Services
  • Project Implementation Process

Operation & Maintenance

Key player at this stage: City Planners & Consultants

Let’s now update status of the projects as ‘operational’; in other words, let’s work, polish and maintain it! As the name says it all, this stage shall internally manage public stakeholders providing FSM solutions while procuring service-contracts and outsourcing private companies.

This stage is carried out for proper management of the completed project elements such that anticipated outcomes of the projects are delivered. Operational monitoring of key performance parameters need to be carried out on continual basis, which will indicate the performance and effectiveness of the Program elements.


  • Project Operation, Management and Maintenance
  • Operation Monitoring


Key player at this stage: City Planners & Donors

A project’s seamless operation would require meticulous monitoring such that projects are able to deliver outputs based on their logical frameworks. On so doing, we will also be able to follow up on the project quality and its implementation progress. Perhaps, verticals such as reports or a program website can do best to update and aggregate the project’s monitoring aspects. Since communication is the key, such interactions lead to transparency and enhance accountability to all key players- beneficiaries, public and donors!


  • Monitoring of project implementation progress
  • Monitoring of project quality
  • Reporting and Updating project statuses

Review & Correct

Key player at this stage: City Planners

The master of all stages, Reviewing and Correcting would require data collected throughout the program cycle to be analyzed and monitored to evaluate achievements of set targets.

Donors shall prepare a project completion report to document the implementation experience with entire results, chain of inputs, outputs, outcomes studied and outlined. City Planners can use the aggregated information from performance monitoring to evaluate the performance. As an outcome, identifying gaps and lessons learned can act as corrective measures to be corrected in the next project cycle.


  • Program Monitoring, review and analysis
  • Corrective / Follow up adaptation


Your decision as a donor can spur innovation and help communities benefit from due diligence FSM services. Want to know your exact roles as a donor to facilitate this exciting mission?


Do you intend to initiate an FSM project by considering local needs and problems to bring solutions to your city that work in the best interest of commerce and community? We have created win-win approaches for you to follow!


Are you a wise advisor and an experienced counselor who can offer FSM-specific expertise that extends from policies to treatment and disposal? Your guide to offering even better is just a click away. Click to find out the most appropriate tools to conquer your consulting!


As we are determined to help our toolbox grow, we’ve come this far due to support from our donors, clients and partners. We’ve demonstrated ourselves as FSM TOOLBOX, and we could not have been well-represented if it were not for our partners. While we are loyal to our initial work of creating FSM Toolbox, we are also excited to work with the following partners to shape the future of Fecal Sludge Management and to apply our resources in sanitation to further our goals.




We all have a common mission- to better the FSM community. Toolbox may not just be the only answer! We’re always in search for better resources and as our search widen, so does opportunities to garner solutions outside of the Toolbox!

Please collaborate by sharing your content. Your thoughts, opinions and resources will be valued by us to integrate into FSM Toolbox expanding database. But, be a strong part of FSM’s workable solutions by sharing case studies, guiding documents or example resources.

Feel free to enjoy this platform for knowledge sharing and collaboration!


Mr. Dorai Narayan – senior advisor
Mr. Ramdeep Sah – senior advisor
Mr. Mujibur Rahman – senior advisor
Mr. Paul Bulson – senior advisor
Mr. Edwin Alzate – consultant & contributor for Financial & Technical Assessment Tool
Ms. Srijana Thapa – Ex. Team member & developer for Situational Assessment Tool
Mrs. Mimansha Joshi Shrestha – External Web Content Editor


Get in touch with us should you have any questions regarding FSM Toolbox.
We have the right answer for helping you with all the FSM issues. Your business is our command!